Category Archives: biology

Test For Protein and Sugars in Urine


What we did: 

In the last biology class we went to the lab to work with test tubes. I worked with. We were given four test tubes, two with a substance which simulates urine, and two with the same substance but less proportion. We put Benedict to two of them with different substances, and biuret to the other two, then we heated the ones with biuret. After this, their colour changed. We did this to see which of them had a healthier ‘urine’.

Materials: 4 test tubes, a benedict dropper, wooden test tube holder, large beaker with water, a normal dropper a bunsen burner and a biuret dropper.

Table of results:




Nervous System Notes



What is it?


Nephritis is a condition in which the nephrons become inflamed.



  • Acute glomerulonephritis: this form of nephritis can develop suddenly after a severe infection, such as strep throat, hepatitis, or HIV.
  • Lupus nephritis
  • Chronic glomerulonephritis
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Interstitial nephritis



  • Pain in the pelvis
  • Pain or a burning sensation while urinating 
  • A frequent need to urinate 
  • Cloudy urine 
  • Blood or pus in the urine 
  • Pain in the kidney area or abdomen

Blood Presentation Notes

Lucas Vorbeck, Nicolas Grosso and Nicolas Larralde made a presentation about blood and presented it in class today. The teacher told us to take notes about it. Here are the notes I made with Tomas Zubizarreta:

  • Blood 


  • Plasma (liquid part of blood – mostly water – carries nutrients)
  • Red Blood Cells/White Blood Cells
  • Platelets



  • Red blood cells
  • Made in Bone Marrow
  • Quick (do not live long)
  • Don’t have a nucleus —> contain pigment haemoglobin, this  oxygen. They can’t reproduce if they acarriesren’t in an organ


  • White blood cells
  • They have nucleus
  • They can move around easily
  • They Kill Pathogens 


  • Phagocytes 
  • Digestive Bacteria
  • Destroy Pathogens


  • Platelets
  • Small cells
  • Red bone marrow
  • Blood Clotting
  • Don’t have nucleus



E= Electrical Impulses

C= Heart Behavior

G= Graph

An Electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity in the heart.

The pulse rate can be fast, slow or mixed, depending if you did exercise or not.

The heart beats as the cardiac muscles in its walls contract and relax. When they contract, the heart becomes smaller, squeezing blood out. This is called systole. When they relax, the heart becomes larger, allowing blood to flow into the atria and ventricles. This is called diastole.

Another way to measure your heart rate is by putting pressure on an artery in your wrists or on your neck.

Immune System

In the last class of Biology we worked with systems. We chose the Immune System. I worked with Tomi Zubizarreta and Mati Hartmann.

A system: In biology, it may refer to the biological or body systems. A biological system is a group of organs that work together to carry out a particular task.


The Immune system is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs which defend the body against infectious organisms and other invaders.

It attacks organisms and substances that invade body and cause diseases.


The Structure: The immune system’s five main structures are the tonsils and thymus, which make antibodies (Antibodies help stop intruders from harming the body. When an intruder enters the body, the immune system springs into action). The lymph nodes (acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells) and vessels. White blood cells also called Leukocytes are produced or stored in many locations in the body. This network of lymph nodes and vessels throughout the body carries lymph fluid, nutrients, and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream. The lymphatic system is an important part of the immune system.


Why are they called systems?

They are called systems because a system is a series of small things that together they carry out a particular task.

Sickle Cell Anaemia and Malaria

In the last class of Biology our teacher asked us to do this activity of 3 ideas, 2 questions, and 1 metaphor. I worked with Emilia Varela.


3 ideas:

  • sickle cell anemia prevents malaria since mosquitoes don’t attack those faulty red blood cells.
  • Sickle cell is normal in places where malaria is normal as well.
  • Sickle cells have a different shape than regular red blood cells.


2 questions:

  • Is sickle cell anaemia worse than malaria?
  • Can the red blood cells prevent sickle cell anaemia?


1 metaphor:

  • Having sickle cell anaemia in Africa is a life saver.


Darwin, Wallace and Lamarck

  1. Most birds don’t prey on Hypolimnas because the species is very similar to the Amuris, and the Amuris has an unpleasant taste.
  2. Mutation, the Hypolimnas mutated and have similar wings to the Amuris onces


  • Many Generations
  1. Lamarck would have said that the sword from the swordfish grew during its lifetime because as the sword was used more and more so it grew longer.
  2. Darwin would explain the changes in the length of the sword by passing generations or mutation that made the sword longer, the ones with the longer sword reproduced the most and could get more food.
  • Giraffe
  1. Lamarck would explain the long of the neck by the giraffes stretching throughout time to reach the trees, and that would made their necks longer, during their lifetime.
  2. Darwin would say that the giraffes with longer necks survived and reproduced the most, the survival of the fittest.


  • Mammoth
  1. It would be the other way around, the mammoths are the ancestors of the elephants. The mammoth changed from a much hairier animal to a less hairier because the weather got hotter.